If so, we invite you to join our Contributor Program. For example, one person might say to another, “I’m going to clup you,” meaning quite literally, “I’m going to hit you.” However, if you use clupwhen referring to a race or a game, it means “win” (e.g., “I’m going to clup you” is eq… The Ndebele language is however not an official one in Botswana. Portuguese colonizers unsuccessfully attempted to gain control of this region in the 17th century and were removed by the Shone. [14]. [24] A new Afrikaner organisation, the Afrikaner Community of Zimbabwe, was founded in April 1981 in Harare. [38] After the Polish government-in-exile discontinued its operations and closed its consulate in 1944, the Polish refugees were increasingly viewed as a burden by the Southern Rhodesian government. Anyone can learn to speak Zimbabwean. [28] [39], Chilapalapa, also known as Pidgin Bantu, [40] was a pidgin language used as a lingua franca between whites, Asians, and blacks during the colonial period. English is the primary language used in schools in Zimbabwe, but it is one of the 16 official languages in the country. Afrikaans is spoken by a small minority of white Zimbabweans, the number of whom has declined significantly since 1980. [5] Rhodesia's successor, the short-lived unrecognized state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, designated English the "only official language" of the country. Although it is used as a second language only, the number of speakers was estimated as "several hundred thousand" in 1975. [45] "Sign language", without further specificity, became one of Zimbabwe's official languages in the 2013 Constitution. [41] It was used in towns, and in the farming and mining sectors, and was especially common in the Mashonaland region, but was never taught in schools or used in any official contexts. Since the adoption of the 2013 Constitution, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa. It is unclear how many sign languages there are in Zimbabwe, and to what extent each is used, as little research has been done. [23][24] By 1984, just 15,000 Afrikaners remained in Zimbabwe, a nearly 60% decline from ten years earlier. Zimbabwe gained its independence in 1980. Many languages are spoken, or historically have been spoken, in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Sign Language. South African Sign Language has legal recognition but is not an official language, despite a campaign and parliamentary recommendation for it to be declared one. [28] These prisoners were repatriated after war. [23] After the mid 1960s, Afrikaners began to enter Rhodesian politics. It has an extensive phoneme inventory, which includes palatalised, velarised, aspirated and breathy-voiced consonants, as well as whistled sibilants. English is the official language of Zimbabwe and is used as means of communication in most regions of the country especially in the urban areas. Click to enlarge with explanation. Chibarwe is one of Zimbabwe's official languages. [2] By the time the new 2013 constitution was being drafted, English, Shona, and Ndebele had become the country's official languages. Languages of Zimbabwe. [26] [27] Many of them lost their farms during the country's land reform program in the early 2000s, with some leaving the country and others remaining. [18] It is spoken by nearly 100,000 people, and is one of Zimbabwe's official languages. This web edition of the Ethnologue may be cited as:  Eberhard, David M., Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). [41] As the majority of blacks at that time lacked education and the ability to speak English, Chilapalapa became a common lingua franca used by whites and Asians to communicate with blacks, and vice versa, usually in the context of work environment. [24] The Afrikaner population in Rhodesia peaked at 35,000 in 1975, and began declining thereafter. Sign languages in Southern Rhodesia first developed independently among deaf students in different schools for the deaf beginning in the 1940s. [3] The Constitution requires that Zimbabwe equally promote each of its official languages, including in schools and in government. The language first arrived in Southern Rhodesia during World War II, when the colony hosted nearly 7,000 refugees from Poland. [37], Polish is spoken by a small minority of white Zimbabweans. There is a small number of Ndebele speakers in the Northeastern part of Botswana bordering Zimbabwe. Afrikaners first arrived in what would become Southern Rhodesia in the early 1890s, recruited to be among the first pioneers by Cecil Rhodes, who sought to bring their agricultural expertise for the new region. According to Nurse & Philippson (2003), the languages form a valid node. It is more widely used in Zambia, a nearby country. [1] [2] [3] It is the traditional language of Zimbabwe's Shona people, who live in Zimbabwe's central and eastern provinces. [42] Today, Chilapalapa is heard only occasionally being spoken between older white and blacks. [34][35] Other Italians were not sent home, but were simply let out of the camps, and some of these chose to remain in Southern Rhodesia. In the 9th century, the Shona civilization began to dominate the area, gaining control between the 13th and 19th centuries. In 2006 an association of doctors in Zimbabwe made calls for then-President Mugabe to make moves to assist the ailing health service. Mthwakazi is widely used to refer to inhabitants of Matebeleland and Midlands provinces in Zimbabwe. [citation needed] Written Chilapalapa literature was rare. Zimbabwe has many different cultures, which may include beliefs and ceremonies, one of them being Shona. [1], Prior to independence in 1980, English had been the official language of Zimbabwe's antecedents since the arrival of white rule in the region. Among those born after independence, none could speak Chilapalapa, though most had heard of it. [28] By 1947, when the Rhodesian government offered repatriation to the remaining 1,282 Poles in the colony, only two women agreed. [citation needed] Other sources describes the language as having primarily Shona influence rather than Ndebele. [42] Because it was often used demeaningly by whites, blacks often associated Chilapalapa with racism and colonialism. [24], Afrikaner children, especially in rural areas, were initially educated in Afrikaans. The Glottolog, a language database maintained by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany, lists seven varieties of indigenous Zimbabwean sign language: Manicaland Sign, Mashonaland Sign, Masvingo School Sign, Matabeleland Sign, Midlands Sign, Zimbabwe Community Sign, and Zimbabwe School Sign. Kalanga is predominantly in the North Eastern part of Botswana. English is the more widely spoken in the major urban areas though only two per cent of the population consider it their native language, mainly the white and Coloured (mixed race) minorities. [41] Additionally, whites often demanded that blacks speak to them in Chilapalapa, not wanting to speak with them in English as it might imply an equal status among the races. The Polish settlements in Southern Rhodesia were run jointly by local authorities and the Polish consulate in Salisbury; the Polish government-in-exile in London provided funding. [33] An additional 500 Indian citizens were residents in Zimbabwe at that time. [14] It was spoken by 145,000 people in Zimbabwe in 2000.[14]. Chewa is one of Zimbabwe's official languages. There are over 80,000 Shona speakers in Botswana. "[4], English remained the official language when Southern Rhodesia was established as a self-governing Crown colony in 1923. All our Expanded PDFs are included with a Standard plan. The language is however not an official one. [24] Notable Afrikaner politicians during this period included several cabinet ministers: Rowan Cronjé, P. K. van der Byl, and Phillip van Heerden. The official languages of Botswana are English and Tswana. [6] Zimbabwe Rhodesia was succeeded by Zimbabwe in 1980. Since the adoption of its 2013 Constitution, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana… When Manyika and Ndau are added to the total, Shona is spoken by over 14 million people. Xhosa is an Nguni Bantu language, most commonly found in South Africa, spoken by around 200,000 Zimbabweans, a little over 1% of the population.

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