Charles I’s belief, inherited from his father, that the power of the crown is God-given and that the king does not have to respect the position of the English Parliament, shaped his reign and led to a political crisis that in the end would cost him his own life. , The new plan, suggested probably by Rupert, had already been tried with strategic success in the summer campaign of 1644. Yet, the first rush of the rebels carried the entrenchments of Speen Hill. , Affairs seemed so bad in the west (Maurice, with a whole army was still vainly besieging the single line of low breastworks that constituted the fortress of Lyme Regis) that the King dispatched Hopton to take charge of Bristol. Roundheads The name given to the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War. These maps show how Charles gradually lost control of England and Wales as the Parliamentarians gained more and more support. His forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, bringing an end to the Irish Confederate Wars. The Royalist army and the Parliamentarians had been fighting for two years.• The Royalists held onto the city of York. Soon afterwards, he received a large reinforcement under General George Goring, which included 5,000 of Newcastle's cavalry. Certain duties and taxes first levied in Edward II’s reign on every tun (cask) of imported wine, which came mostly from Spain and Portugal, and on every pound weight of merchandise exported or imported. Sir Richard Grenville arrived in Plymouth in March 1644 to maintain a blockade, but it resulted in a stalemate as the inhabitants obtained enough provisions to survive. Many people were not happy with his rule. Elizabeth I’s death in 1603 resulted in the accession of her first cousin twice-removed King James VI of Scotland to the English throne as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms. By 1646 Charles realized that he was in danger. Nightfall put an end to the struggle around Newbury, and then too late, Manchester ordered the attack on Shaw House. , In Lancashire, as in Cheshire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire, and Lincolnshire, the cause of Parliament was in the ascendant. To share with more than one person, separate addresses with a comma. Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator, a military dictator, and a hero of liberty. Charles had found that he could not relieve Basing (a mile or two from Basingstoke), without risking a battle with the enemy between himself and Oxford.  From Abingdon, Essex moved direct on Oxford. The Covenanter army included the Parliamentarians and the Scottish. At first successful, this general penetrated to Plymouth, whence, securely based as he thought, he could overrun Devon. Catholics, most of the Nobles and gentry, about half of all Members of Parliament, the poorer areas of the North and West. , An attempt at pursuit was made by Waller and Cromwell, with all the cavalry they could lay hands on. , Essex quickly moved his army to the small town of Lostwithiel, approximately nine kilometers north of the port at Fowey. The king’s forces were called Cavaliers. Its outcome was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of Charles II, and the replacement of English monarchy with, at first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–53), and then the Protectorate (1653–59) under Oliver Cromwell’s personal rule. The Battle of Stratton (The Battlefields Resource Centre). Cornwall played a significant role in the English Civil War, being a Royalist enclave in the generally Parliamentarian south-west. Please note: Text within images is not translated, some features may not work properly after translation, and the translation may not accurately convey the intended meaning. He was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–1650. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament’s consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688. It was the first real trial of strength between the best elements on either side, and it ended before night with the complete victory of the Parliamentary armies. Despite tensions between the King and Parliament, James’s peaceful disposition contributed to relative peace in both England and Scotland. They also wore very plain and simple clothes. , Operations of Essex's, Waller's and Manchester's armies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=First_English_Civil_War,_1644&oldid=863055142, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 October 2018, at 12:23.
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