This includes the refined carbohydrates in products like sugar and white flour, but also the complex carbohydrates in fruits, vegetables and whole grains. No single nutrient is responsible, on its own, for good health. [13]:92–93, Part II looks at the diseases (like heart disease, cancer, stroke, Alzheimer's, obesity and diabetes) that were classified as diseases of affluence in Chapter 4. After surgery, he opted out of chemotherapy and used nutrition and natural therapies to heal. Exercise. [13]:Chapter 3, The rest of the chapter discusses research that Campbell and colleagues did on the relationship between diet and cancer. Socrates, via Plato, predicted that a society that indulged in the luxury of meat would lead to a society plagued with inflammation and disease. Studies or companies that zero in on one particular nutrient lead to misleading information and confusion. Although the biology of why and how the WFPB diet works is complex, eating a WFPB diet is simple: Eat unrefined plant foods and limit added salt and fats. Problem #1: Many doctors see a plant-based diet as too “extreme” to recommend. The list cautiously suggested that eating a little less meat and decreasing fat consumption could prevent heart disease. As mentioned throughout the book, antioxidants combat free radicals. But when they clothe their marketing in scientific language, they make it hard for the consumer to understand the truth of a product’s health claims. It’s demoralizing to think that a patient could choose between eating more greens and having bypass surgery, and eating more greens might be the more effective choice. The actual number of deaths caused by medical care is probably closer to 400,000 per year. Academia also has ties to these other institutions, its members helping develop health policies and working closely with the U.S. Department of Agriculture through outreach programs. Members were also irritated because they denied that food had anything to do with cancer and didn’t think the concept should be explored at all. We spend more money on health care than any other country in the world. They all ate a high-fiber, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet. We need to consume these “essential” amino acids in order to replace some of our bodily proteins. The dairy and meat industries wanted to stay ahead of the “competition” (the researchers). In 2016, only 32% of academics were tenured or held a tenure-track position. (We’ll look at how animal proteins contribute to disease development in the next chapter.) [13]:84,88 In the China Study, the least active Chinese consumed 30% more calories than their American counterparts yet their body weight was 20% lower. In his studies with rats, Campbell and his team found that animals fed 5% casein diets exercised twice as much on the first day of the experiment as animals fed 20% casein diets. [13]:71–78 Dietary fiber, which is found only in plants, has benefits including an ability to gather up harmful chemicals from the intestines, but there were claims that it inhibited the uptake of iron. Regardless of how whole, plant foods function to reduce your risk of various diseases, they seem to reduce risk across the board. Part II dives into the diseases of affluence that afflict Westerners in particular: heart disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Studies suggest that 70% of fracture risk in women over 50 can be attributed to eating animal protein. But in 2011, that percentage doubled, and it’s projected to be almost 20% in 2022. Reduce your salt intake. Explore different restaurants and try new recipes to find meals that you love. To understand how protein influences this development, we need a basic understanding of the three stages of cancer. We might be able to resist the newest Apple offering or Lululemon pants because we know, on a rational level, that we don’t really need them. So our bones should be stronger than everyone else’s. Associations like the ADA tell people what they want to hear, hoping not to scare... Campbell, who won the American Institute for Cancer Research’s Research Achievement award in 1998, believes that the nutritional principles discussed in this book have the same effect on many cancers, as discussed in Chapter 3. People with Type 1 diabetes (5-10% of all diabetes cases) can’t produce insulin because the pancreas cells that make it have been destroyed by the immune system. But the goals were so controversial in the senate (because of their recommendation to decrease consumption of animal products) that the committee had to substantially revise them. Cutting meat and dairy means cheaper grocery bills in the long run, but at the beginning of your WFPB journey, you may find that the process of trying new foods and figuring out what you like involves spending more money. It’s the job of industries to sell a product. Fewer and fewer researchers have tenure track jobs. T. Colin Campbell, PhD has spent the last 60 years researching nutritional science, and the association between diet and disease, particularly the link between animal protein and cancer. This is normal and won’t last long. Raw Food SOS thoroughly discredits the China Study, and Richard Nikoley is there with a bullhorn to spread the word. It’s not. You can’t isolate a chemical and then make sweeping assumptions about the food it’s in. But blaming obesity on genes is unproductive. Further, meat was expensive. Principle #5: Good nutrition can counter the negative effects of carcinogens. In the China Study, strong links were seen between increased levels of vitamin C in the blood (mainly due to fruit consumption) and lower risk of several kinds of cancer (by factors of up to 8). You need to look at the bigger picture, your dietary and lifestyle patterns as a whole, to understand how to be healthier. But even though there’s a huge amount of health information out there, most of us still aren’t really sure what we should be eating to be our healthiest. Campbell co-founded Cornell’s toxicology program, which for years was a star of the Division of Nutritional Sciences. As mentioned in Chapter 4, plant-eaters have a higher resting metabolism, meaning they burn more calories as heat rather than storing them as body fat. Foreign proteins are called antigens. We can observe the possible effects of a plant-based diet on diabetes risk by studying Seventh-day Adventists, whose religion advises they avoid meat, fish, and eggs, among other foods and drinks. But this still leaves behind unhealthy proteins. Korea spent only $870 per person. There’s evidence that vitamin D is involved in the most prominent mechanism. Common medical wisdom said that animal protein prevented diseases like liver cancer. [12], The China Study is divided into four parts. As you adjust to a WFPB diet, your tastes will change. Problem #3: Marketers take advantage of reductionism. Which lessons from the China Study are most meaningful to you? For more than 40 years, T. Colin Campbell, PhD, has been at the forefront of nutrition research. The other half still eats meat, but less than the average American. According to the Campbells, it’s academia. Just as a deficiency in “supercharged” vitamin D can increase prostate cancer risk, it can also increase your risk of developing an autoimmune disease. [13]:172–173, Autoimmune diseases, which include multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and Type 1 diabetes, afflict 7–10% of the world's population. Over a year ago I wrote about The China Study, a book by T. Colin Campbell and his son based on a huge epidemiologic study of diet and health done in China. But dietary fat was hard to study because, in the name of health, many of these nurses ate low-fat diets. There are different types of carcinogenic chemicals: Carcinogen Type #1: We can’t metabolize these carcinogens, so they stay in our bodies, accumulating in body fat and the breast milk of lactating mothers. Controlled Studies—Diet as Cure Rather Than Prevention. [13]:170–171 Research by Dr. Ornish, after the first edition of the book, showing that a WFPB diet could "halt and even reverse" prostate cancer. Most Americans eat 15-16% protein. "[25] However, subsequent studies have shown Helicobacter pylori, a prominent disease in China, to be the prominent cause of stomach cancer in most individuals.[26]. In this chapter, we look at the research on diet and three groups of cancer in particular: breast cancer, large bowel cancers, and prostate cancer. The second problem deals specifically with reductionism. Americans age 50 and older have one of the highest hip fracture rates in the world. Another problem Americans face is that we’re confused about what to eat to be healthy. Reviews of the literature show a strong association with consumption of animal-based foods, with higher consumption of dairy doubling or quadrupling the risk. Supplements are problematic because they’re poorly regulated, often have side effects, and aren’t always effective. The highest quality proteins are the ones that provide us with all eight of the amino acids our bodies can’t make themselves. By making claims about the proven nutritional value of their products, food and drug companies and advocacy groups blur the line between science and marketing. This can result in conflicting findings and confusion. For example, the industry publishes highly successful educational programs on nutrition, one of which was used in 76% of the nation’s preschools and kindergartens in 1999. Like most cancers, this is yet another disease of affluence. Geography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Campbells start by outlining eight key principles. When industries tell us that we need their products in order to be healthy, they’re hard to resist. Several key research projects led to the development of the China Study. Most kidney stones are formed of calcium and oxalate. Drug companies may influence medical students and schools by: The bias of doctors toward drug solutions is dangerous. These hormones include estrogen and progesterone. A 1975 study of 32 countries found a particularly strong link between colon cancer and meat intake. Diet books are frequent bestsellers and America’s health industry is worth billions of dollars. Discovery #3: You feel good. In people with autoimmune disease, the body attacks itself. Data used to substantiate the information presented in The China Study comes from Dr. Campbell's part in a 20-year study that was done in cooperation between Cornell University, Oxford University, and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine and Dr. Campbell's own 40 years of … It was first published in the United States in January 2005 and had sold over one million copies as of October 2013, making it one of America's best-selling books about nutrition. Over time, this results in kidney stones. In their place are increased fat and protein. For the project, T. Colin Campbell’s Cornell team partnered with Oxford University and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine to study the diets, lifestyles, and diseases of inhabitants of rural China. The China Study suggests that we can lose weight and lower disease rates by removing animal foods from our diets. But “low-fat” doesn’t mean healthy: A person can eat a meal of roasted turkey, low-fat gravy, potatoes, skim milk, nonfat yogurt, and reduced-fat cheesecake, and consume double the protein and cholesterol as someone who eats a high-fat meal of steak, green beans with almonds, potato pockets, and apple crisp. Esselstyn had had a long career with the clinic as one of its star surgeons. You won’t commit to a WFPB diet if you’re not interested in what you’re eating. Also due to their low-fat diets, Chinese women had half the estrogen levels of British women during their reproductive years. Rates for some cancers varied by a factor of over 100, a far greater variation than in the United States. The Campbells use the careers of two doctors, Dr. Esselstyn and Dr. McDougall, to demonstrate how being a doctor who departs from the norm and prescribes a plant-based diet can damage your medical career.

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